EXSODUS OF ROMA

EXODUS OF ROMA

 

While searching for the homeland of Roma, we still couldn’t find a state where Roma lived by their name.

Many scientists say that the homeland of Roma is India precisely the city of Kanauj. As many scientists say Roma in this city were wealthy and good tradesmen. When scientist say that those were Roma who lived in Kanauj, they only assume, because there was no nation called Roma in Kanauj. The same say that the first migration of Roma from Indiya-Kanauj was in 420 and they were the first 12000 thousands Roma who settled in Persia. But these musicians, about which we are speaking, were not called Roma. They are not called as Roma even in Persia, but are called as Lurya and Lurya do not declare themselves as Roma.

Lurya are a poor nation who lived in tends and were doing different jobs in order to survive but they are not Roma, they are the same as many Indians or Persians, having bad conditions, poor, who live the nomadic life the same as Roma lived.

All the names that were found by scientists while searching for the homeland of Roma are names which were given to one nation, but these nations do not call themselves Roma and do not consider themselves as Roma. Therefore we will not go further with these names, but will only mention the names give to Roma and the Roma who declare themselves as Roma. This is how we may find the Romani exodus and see why and how it came.

As seen, names that were given to Roma by non Roma, and by those who declare themselves as Roma were the following:

Initially is mentioned the name Athcinganoi, from which then come other names such as Zingare, Tsiganes, Zigeuner, Cigani…

As considered, the name Athciganoi, is the main reason of increasing hatread and made that many people to dislike Roma.

The word Athcinganoi is of Greek language and means untouchable, people who couldn`t be touched. This name was taken by Bible and was further put in Greek language, assuming that Bible talks about the first Roma Kain, who was used by his father St. Adam and by God itself.

Based on Bible, St. Adam who was the first human being in the Earth and his wife Eva, the first female in the Earth had their first baby whom they named Cain. Based on religious stories we learn that he had a twin sister. Then they also had another twins Abel and his sister. Cain was a farmer whereas Abel was cattleman. When their marriage day came, St. Adam said that Cain must marry the sister that was born with Abel and Abel must marry the sister that was born with Cain. Cain countered saying that God has created him with her in the same stomach and she must be his wife, also another reason to counter was that the sister born with him was prettier than the other sister. Ii order to get God`s opinion on this, they should make a sacrifice and to give it to God.

When they gave the sacrifice to God, God accepted Abal`s sacrifice who was a cattleman whereas he did not accept Cain`s. Cain in order to marry his preferred sister killed his brother Abel and therefore was cursed by God and was expelled from that place. However God didn’t let no one to kill Cain and said that no one should touch him, therefore he took the name of untouchable and people who were Cain`s descendants were called untouchable. This is how the word Athcinganoi remained and by such name were called Roma who were declaring they were Roma.

It is interesting to say that Cains nation was the first to consume alcohol, played music, worked as blacksmiths, dealt with magic, fortune-telling, animal trainers, were the first to produce statues through which they remembered their grandparents (although this belief was perceived differently and was converted to religion), and were the first to live in tends the same as Roma did and are doing.

If we believe to all this was said, based on religion we may conclude this was the first exodus of the very first Roma.

Humanity was multiplied, people started looking different places, and as back then there was a lack of water, Cain`s nation started to go to different places as it was with the exodus.

The word Athcinganoi in the new period (14. century) was replaced by the name Jipsi (Gypsy) and the same for the cursed and expelled nation of Ham (Kham) which although were called with such name, still Roma said that they were Roma. The word Gypsy in other countries is used differently as Gitans- France, Gitanos- Spain, Gypsies – England, Giftos – Grece etc.

As the Roma exodus was not registered when there was a great range of religions, today the reason is not known, but it is known that in 12,13,14 century when they were found between Christians and Muslims, then appeared the cursing about which we have talked above and step by step it was written about the exodus in order not to be forgotten and in order to raise the awareness of the coming generation.

As Roma entered different countries, locals were complaining them to be thieves, cheaters, dirty, etc. so that Churches and country governments decided to expel Roma from their countries.

Initially, Church did not allow locals to build contacts with Roma saying that Athciganoi - Gypsy- Roma contact with devil and therefore they are forbidden to contact with Roma.

Governments take decisions in central level by punishing them because they dealt with magic, human trafficking, Turkish spies etc. and so they expelled Roma from their countries. Some attitudes are seen as following:

In 1449,1496,1497,1498, a decree of their expulsion from the German land was approved.

In 1500 King Maksymilian 1 (Augsburg) wanted to totally clean the German country from Roma, and threatened to be killed wherever found.

The same exodus was repeated over the years and every coming king was issuing the decree for their expulsion and suspension.

In other countries as well, wherever they would find Roma they would hang them as in Czechoslovakia on 17th century they hanged Roma on the border while trying to enter Czechoslovakia.

The same decrees for Roma expulsion and execution were taken in France as well, as for example in 1504 (Louis Vll), has issued a decree to expel Roma if they were found in his country.

In 1510, the Great Council issues a decree to expel or hang all Roma who were found in their country. Such decrees were issued many times, as well as on 19th century were practiced many other difficulties.

In Netherlands main places there were posters of hang Roma serving as a caution for those who tried to enter the country.

The Spanish King Carlo V. (04.04.1525) issues a decree Roma to leave the country within 2 days.

In 1533 they started taking from Roma everything they had, by beating them and burning by iron. At the end of 17 century beginning of 18th they started hunting for Roma including the police for finding and killing Roma.

In Sweden in 1560 firstly bishop Laurenius Petri does not allow his servants to bury the Roma, and soon by the King`s decree it was asked to expel all Roma from Sweden, and those that remain may be killed. The same decisions were made on 18th and 19th century and Roma were not allowed to enter Sweden until 1954.

In Norway the Law on Roma which was adopted in 1687 by King Christian V. was in force until 1843. According to this law it was allowed to expel Roma, whereas their leaders to be executed.

In Denmark the King Christian lll. in 1535 required from all Roma in Denmark to leave Denmark. The same request was made in 1555, 1561, 1570 and 1574.

Roma who were found in the country after this decree were obliged to work forcibly.

The same in 1589 was issued a decree to kill the Roma leader, and his group to be expelled outside Denmark. Thos who do not want to leave the country may be killed. The same decree was issued in 1615 and 1643, whereas in 1683 ship captains were not allowed to transport Roma.

These laws were in force until 1708 when the execution punishment was replaced with expulsion.

In Switzerland as well were taken decrees to expel Roma in 1580, 1646, and 1727. These were the same decrees as those mentioned above and so we may mention more examples from different countries on their treatment on Roma.

The last exodus of Roma was after the Kosova war in 1999. This exodus was made in front the democratic countries and more than 100.000 were expelled from Kosovo and their houses were burnt down just because it was believed that Roma helped Serbs the same as the others in other countries believed Roma were Ottoman spies.

 

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