ROMANI LANGUAGE

ROMANI/ROMA LANGUAGE

 

Romani language is the language spoken by Roma through which they understand each other. To date, Roma are the poorest nation in the World, considering the spoken language and the Romani expressions, as well as the written literature in Romani language.

This poorness comes from different aspects, which in this unit we will tackle a little broader.

Romani language belongs to Indo-European group of languages, and is thought to derive from India. This may be connected with the fact that many expressions of Roma language are similar to Indian language or better say to old Indian Sanskrit language. But as we have talked about Roma in the unit ”The Roma”, therefore prior entering the details of this issue, in this chapter we will talk more about spoken Romani language and where is it spoken.

Roma, who do not posses their country, as known, are a nation who travelled from place to place settling for a longer or shorter time in new places. In such settlements, in order to be part of certain society, many Roma have forgotten their language and have borrowed another language and by doing so, today we may see that there are many assimilated Roma who have forgotten their language.

In such difficult life conditions, still many Roma by great love have kept their language, and thanks to such Roma, today we can speak and write in Romani language.

Nowadays, Roma that speak Romani language are the Roma who remained to live in Balkans, Europe and in a small part of Asia. We know that there are many other Roma who speak the Romani language in other continents as well but we also know that these Roma have migrated from Balkans, Europe or some Asian countries.

As every language in the World, the Romani language as well, has its own dialects and its local languages which we must differentiate from one another.

As there are Roma living in villages and cities, it is very different to make a proper research about Romani language, but the same investigation is even more difficult when the scholar is non-Roma or does not know the dialects spoken in other places.

Nowadays there are many linguists who are conducting a research on Romani language and I may say that such linguists by investigating the language, have broaden the number of Romani dialects and today if we would ask those linguists, they would say that in Romani language there are more than 60 dialects, raking here the local languages as dialects.

Here we will initially consider the linguists opinions on how do they describe the Romani dialects.

The below written are some of the dialects considered by them:

Banateski Gurbet Romani, Bugurjii Romani, Burgenlandaki Romani, Crimean Romani, Dolenyaki Romani, Finish Romani-kale, Gurbet Romani, Gurvari Romani, Hungarian Romani, Kalderash Romani, Kosovo Arli Romani, Latvia Romani, Lithuanian Romani, Lovara Romani, Macedonian Arli Romani, Macedonian Jambazi Romani, Russian Romani, Romanian Romani, Turkish Sepetqi Romani, Sinti Romani, Slovak Romani, Sofia Erli Romani, Sremeski Gurbet Romani, Ursari Romani, Velsh Roma etc.

As seen, Romani speaking-dialects were based on places they lived (Banat), Countries (Burgenland), occupations (hamper- ursari) etc. and by doing so the number of dialects increases. However, by knowing that the above written are not dialects, therefore we will not rely on above written names but we will explain the Romani speaking/dialects as known by Roma.

The greatest Romani dialects that compete – for the standardized Romani language are these: Arli, Gurbet, Kalderashi -Lovari, whereas Kale dialect is specific and may not compete in standardization with its speaking having borrowed the Finish speaking melody. When talking about Sinti dialect, we may say that this dialect belongs to Arli dialect but the speaking has taken the German speaking melody and therefore often there are difficulties in understanding it.

Under these dialects there are some smaller dialects as well or better say local languages who belong to one of above-written dialects but we will tackle this issue in another chapter that will be completely dedicated to this topic.

If seeing the territories where these Romani dialect speakers live, then we may say that all speakers of these dialects live in every country where Roma exist, but if considering the number, where do the speakers of these dialects frequent the most and what their speaking looks like, then we must speak separately for each of above-written dialects.

 

ARLI DILECT – ROMANI SPEAKING

 

The Arli dialect is spoken by Romani community of the same name Arli. Arliye are also referred to as Yerliye and Erliye.

The word Arli in Romani language means merchant and is a word borrowed by Arabic language and in Arabic, it is also used for the believers, timid, faithful/loyal, those who do not lie. Arliye are people dealing with trade, therefore such people must be loyal in order to sell successfully.

The word Erliya is a Turkish word and comes from the word ”ER” which means the same as Rom in Romani language, (the word Roma is the plural of the word Rom which has different meanings, as for example: Man, Husband – when a male gets married becomes the man/husband of the female whereas the female becomes his wife/romni, faithful, Rom – mature man – not a boy, but in Turkish with the word ER are also referred soldiers having no rank/great title but are people under the total control of the country (housing, food, clothing … ). As known, Roma were part of Ottomans in wars …

Whereas the word Yerliya, is also a Turkish word and indicates the local people, people that do not travel from place to place but rather are settled in one place.

This Romani dialect is spoken in: Kosovo, Serbia, Macedonia, Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, and Turkey and nowadays in other democratic countries of the World.

Roma that escaped from the above written places for different reasons, war, politics or economic situation, have settled in these democratic countries and today the greatest activates for Roma and Romani culture are done by these Roma in those countries.

Arli Romani dialect, today is not only a spoken language, as it was some years ago, but is also a written language. For the first time in 1972 in Prizren –Kosovo was published the first Romani bulletin entitled ”Romano Alav” in Romani and Serbian language, by the Romani intellectuals lead by Prof. Ibrahim Elshani, Prof. Nusret Seharsoyi and the lawyer Shaban Berisha.

In this bulletin was published for the first time the Romani alphabet with Latin letters and based on Serbian language (among other lj = l, diacritical marks š, č , diphthongs – two sounds ph, th, kh, čh, zh = ž, and for the international purposes some letters were taken from the French language like ph = f, ou = u, au = o). But a more serious work on Romani Arli dialect was done in Macedonia in 1980, when Prof. Shayip Yusuf and Prof. Krume Kepeski, wrote the first grammar in Romani and Macedonian language. in this grammar they used the Serbian-Macedonian alphabet and the diphthongs ph, th, kh, ch, were considered as one letter. After the first Romani grammar was written then it was proposed to standardize the Romani language based on the principals given in this grammar, but except Macedonia none of the former Yugoslavian countries have worked with this grammar. In Macedonia were written different books and magazines using this alphabet and system, and to date in this country is used the same system as in Romani education as well as in Romani magazines or Romani media (Radio - TV).

Approximately 60.000 Roma live in Macedonia, 90% out of which speaks Arli dialect.

In 1986 the Arli Romani dialects started to be heard in Kosovo TV and Radio and these were the first media in Romani language in former Yugoslavia. On that time, in Kosovo were living approximately 150.000- 200.000 Roma.

The French Dr. Marcel Courthiade has put the most serious efforts on Arli Romani dialect, who has worked in former Yugoslavia and has printed the book “Romani phonetics and spelling” ( Titograd – 1986), where he clearly states his opinion on how to standardize the Romani language. in the book once he asserts that: “it would be good if they would write like us” considering the Gurbeti, Lovari and Kalderashi. Dr. Marcel Courthiade has published also the book “Romano Startoro” with a specific alphabet about which we will speak separately.

In the same year (1986) was for the first time initiated the Romani language tutoring in the schools of Prizren- Kosovo, and the first teacher was the English language teacher Imer Karanja.

By opening Romani Associations in Kosovo and Macedonia, Romani songs were promoted and by this the first Romani writers were born.

The Arli dialect spelling was definitely adapted in Kosovo in 1992 when the old alphabet was excluded and the new alphabet was brought based only on sounds and was printed in “Romano Alav” gindo 3. At the moment we write with this alphabet and we will tackle this separately.

Ibrahim Elshani, Kuytim Paqaku, Imer Karanja and Selahetin Kruezi were the first Romani intellectuals to establish the Romani alphabet.

Today this alphabet is used in Kosovo. All media today use this alphabet and the Arli dialect.

Many books and drama were written with the same alphabet and Arli dialect, many books were translated and the most important, with this alphabet and Arli dialect in 2003 were written two important books for teaching, and those are “Siklova Hramipe thay Drabaripa/We learn to write and read“ and “Mathematics 1” whose author is Selahetin Kruezi. These books are a good possibility to study in Romani language as a mother tongue the same as the other mother tongues are tought in the World.

Arli dialect may be heard even by Serbians in cities as: Bujanovac, Presevo, Nis, Vranje, Belgrade and other small cities. By this dialect in Serbia were printed “Qhavrikano lil/Children Magazine”, “Krlo e Romengo/Romani Throat” editor Prof. Dragoljub Ackovic, the magazine “Them//Nation”, whose editor was Luan Koka, Radio and TV, as in the local as well as in central level. The book “Bareshtibe/Conciliation” by Prof. Ibrahim Osmani – Bujanovac was written with this dialect...

Arli dialect today is heard even in Sweden, Denmark, Germany, Netherlands, France, Italy form Romani immigrants. Their great activity has made that today in some countries like Sweden, were written many school books, fairytales, magazines, Radio, brief Romani grammar and a lexicon translated from Swedish to Romani language, written by Baki Hasan, Roma from Macedonia, who currently lives in Sweden.

Songs that are sang and were sang in the past by Roma (Kosovo- Macedonia), were collected by Prof. Dr.Trajko Petkovski, expert for the Romani folklore, from Macedonia.

İn Macedonia, the Arli dialect is taught at University by Dr.Latif Demir who also wrote the Romani dictionary/lavustik, Romani–Macedonian and Macedonian–Romani with his wife Prof. Fatime Demir. Latif Demir and Nevsiya Durmish printed the Romani Grammar as well in Romani and Croatian language which is up to 70-80 % copied by the grammar written by Dr. Rajko Djuric and Shaip Jusuf. There are many other writers who wrote with Arli dialect as in Kosovo, as well as in Macedonia, Serbia, Bulgaria...

In Arli dialect today may be read the greatest Indian epic Mahabharata. At the same time may be read the Rabindranat Tagora, Gitanyali, Iliada, Odisea, etc. that in Romani language were translated by Prof. Ibrahim Elshani from Kosovo.

About drama and poetries, as long as well as short ones, in Arli dialect may be read the works by the following writers:

Kuytim Paqaku, Nejip Menekshe, Selahetin Kruezi (Denmark), all from Prizren- Kosovo, Mehmet Saqipi, Roma from Gjilan/Gnjilane- Kosovo who now lives, as a refugee in Subotica – Serbia and many others.

Based on Romani organizations, in Kosovo, before the last ethnic conflict lived approximately 200.000 Roma out of which 80 % spoke the Arli dialect. Today in Kosovo live around 30 - 40000 Roma who remained in their houses in Kosovo.

The Sinti Romani speaking is spoken by Roma who live in Germany, Austria and the Benelux countries and is a speaking that belongs to Arli dialect therefore we will not write much about this dialect in this chapter.

The writing you are currently reading is written in Arli dialect; therefore we do not give other text with this dialect so you could see how the dialect sounds as we will do with other dialects.

 

GURBET DIALECT – ROMANI SPEAKING

 

The Gurbeti dialect is spoken by Roma called Gurbetya. However, Gurbetya are also called Jambazya, Gabelya and Qergarya.

The word Gurbet is a Turkish word indicating that these people are not local, are expatriates – do not belong to a certain place but rather derived from other places.

They are called Jambazya because they deal with trade and are jambazya – people who bargain a lot for the price when doing trade.

Gabeli and Qergarya are called because Roma live in tends, whereas for the word we still do not know for sure but it is said that Jabel, in religion, was the first to live in tents and made a living for himself and his family therefore people who stay in tents are called gabelya as well because in other languages the word Jabel is written with the letter G (gabel) and is still read as Jabel.

Even if these Roma today do not live in tents, they are still called as Gabelya, maybe because were setled after certain nations in certain places and the locals do not forget their life style.

 

Gurbet dialect is a speaking which may be mainly heard in former Yugoslavian Republics, today as 7 independent countries.

This speaking is heard in Kosovo, Montenegro, Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Slovenia, small number in Macedonia, Italy, Albania, Turkey as well as in other democratic countries in the World, from the immigrants who left their countries after the war in former Yugoslavia. İt is known that Roma have escaped from the above-written countries seeking a better life in democratic countries.

Today this dialect is not only a spoken dialect but also written and to date the greatest literary works in Romani language were written in this dialect.

The first and the greatest investigation on this dialect was done by Rade Uhlik, who also wrote many books about this dialect. The most known are:

"Romani songs/Romane gilja (Romske pjesme)", songs collection, Prijedor, 1937.

"Bosnian Romani Vocabulary", Liverpool,1943.

"Serbocroation-roma dictionary/Srpskohrvatsko-ciganski rečnik (Romane alava)", rječnik, Sarajevo, 1947.

"prepositive and postpositive article in gurbet ", book, Sarajevo, 1951.

"Gypsism in šatrovarian argot and similar speakings ", article, Sarajevo, 1954.

"Gipsy stories", book, 1957.

"Imperative category in Romani language", book, Science and Art Academy of Bosnia and Herzegovina, 1974.

"Zigeunerlieder", book, Leipzig, 1977.

"Gipsy poetry (R. Uhlik, Branko V. Radičević)", book, Belgrade, 1982.

"Serbocroatian-Romani-English dictionary (Romengo alavari)", dictionary, Sarajevo, 1983.

"Romani language and culture ", book, Sarajevo, 1989.

 

Rede Uhlik was the first who wanted to initiate the Romani language learninig in former Yugoslavia, but as heard, from the Yugoslavian Country, in order to stop the Romani language studies, they wanted to send Rade Uhlik in India as a representative or Yugoslavian Ambassador, saying that there he may do a greater research for Roma as then it as known that Roma derived from India. But in reality this was not for his benefit as they only looked for excuse to take him out of Yugoslavia and stop the initiative for opening the Romani language teaching.

This was understood when he was not sent in India so as the teaching in Romani language was not opened.

Me, being very young, feeling extremely happy that the Romani teaching will begin, used to write children poetries and I ensured a place for Rade Uhlik as well, so his work could not be forgotten. As the poetry is long enough, we will only show some lines that talk about Rade Uhlik in Arli dialect:

...

O RADE UHLIK BUT PHIRYA/RADE UHLIK TRAVELED A LOT

BUT E ROMENSA VAKARYA /TALKED TO MANY ROMA

OLENGO VAKARIPA LELA/ RECORDED THEIR SPEAKING

ALAVARI HRAMINYA / WROTE A DICTIONARY

ALE ROMALEN ALE / THEY`VE COME ROMA THEY`VE COME

AMARE BAHTALE DIVE / OUR HAPPY DAYS

ANI SHKOLA KA NAKHA / WE WILL GO TO SCHOOL

ROMANI QHIB TE SIKLOVA. / TO STUDY THE ROMANI LANGUAGE

 

....

To date, the one who has written the mostly (by number) in Gurbet dialect, is my good friend, Aliya Krasniqi – Kosovo, who to date wrote many books and nearly 40 were published, writing poetries and fairytales, as for youngsters as well as for olders. He started writing in 1974 firstly Romani drama later other books.

He was the first Romani writer from Kosovo to publish fairytales in Romani and Serbian languge in 1981. As the only Romani writer he was also the editor of Romani program in Kosovo- Pristina (1986), transmitting programs in Gurbet and Ari dialects together with Bayram Haliti and Veli Briyani - Kosovo. After the last conflict in Kosovo, this Romani writer left Kosovo and currently is living in Serbia - Subotica and has opened his printing house so he can easier print Romani books.

Some titles of Ali`s books are: “Qergarenge yaga”/The flames of chergars, ”Romane Paramiqa”/Romani fairytales, ”Iripe ano juvdipe”/A life turning etc. This writer in his works has always explained the Romani life (we will write more about these works).

When speaking about Romani writers in general and especially of Gurbet dialect, then the most eminent is Prof. Dr. Rajko Djuric, who is like a Roma leader (the chairperson of IRU for 8 years in a row) he is the first among Roma even by the Professional Academic work.His love towards Roma may be seen from his poetry in Gurbet dialect:

BI KHERESKO BI LIMORESKO / WITHOUT HOME WITHOUT GRAVE

 

O.. lele mange sa vaht / O... woe is me all the time

O... yoy dade more!ana / O... father! come

Tu bi limoresko / You without grave

Amen bi kheresko / Us without home

Te aves e balvalaqe po phurdipe / May you come as the wind blows

E themeske po khandipe / By the nation`s smell

Kay may / On May

Jikay may / Until May

....

Prof. Dr. Rajko Djuric, by his books has opened the education way for Roma and for non-Roma to teach the Romani language at University. His book “The Migration of Roma” is the first book to talk about Roma history, written by a Roma by his own knowledge, and not by asking other Roma how was it back then. We must distinguish the writers who create works by asking the other writers and those that ask the ones who are living that life.

His book “The Grammar of Romani Language” translated in Serbian, written in Romani is a book that talks broadly about the grammar of Gurbet dialect and this is a great advantage for Roma and non Roma who want to learn the Romani language in this dialect (we will write more about this book). Also the book “The Spelling of Romani language”/“Pravopis Romskog Jezika” (O Qaqelekhavno e Romane qhibako), written in Serbian language, is a book that Roma did not have to date for learning the Romani language (we will write more about this book), and therefore from the academic aspect is one of the most important books in Romani and for Romani language. His last book “Standardized Romani Language” is a book indicating how the Romani language should be standardized. We will write more about this book.

Another writer who gave his best for the Romani language not be forgotten, is the lawyer Bayram Haliti, whose origin is from Kosovo, but after the last Kosovo war escaped in Belgrade-Serbia where he currently continues his fight for Romani language teaching-promotion.

Bayram, in the past, while living in Kosovo, has promoted the Romani language as a singer of new Romani songs. Later entered Radio Pristina as a journalist and soon becomes the editor of the program in Romani language. But after the last Kosovo war, as a Roma leader, left Kosovo and is currently living in Belgrade-Serbia. As the editor of the magazine “Ahimsa” and as a poet, has contributed enough for the affirmation of Romani language, and mainly of Gurbet dialect, because he himself is a Gurbet and writes in Gurbet dialect. Bayram Haliti, was the first Roma to write about Romani Holocaust and achieved the greatest success by writing the first dictionary in Serbian and Romani language together with its grammar and spelling, who by this book has shown to Roma and non Roma that Romani language must be studied as in lower as well as in the higher university levels.

When talking about Gurbet dialect we may also mention Veljko Kaytazi, Roma from Kosovo who currently lives in Croatia. This Roma with his work wrote many books for children and the most important he wrote the Croatian/Romani and Romani/Croatian dictionary. The chairman of “Kali Sara” Association, by his activities for the Romani language together with his colleagues were the first to initiate the Celebration of Universal Day of Romani language that is regularly being held on the 5th of November. On this day all Romani writers and Romani language scholars/linguists, gather in one place discussing the advancement of Romani language, for its standardization and how could the Romani language be taught at Universities.

There are many other writers who wrote on Gurbet dialect but we will write more about them on other chapters and works.

 

KALDERASHI DIALECT – ROMANO SPEAKING

 

Kaldershya are Roma living in Russia as well as in Serbia, Montenegro, Romani, Poland, America, Turkey and other countries. For Kalderashi we may shortly say that they are Roma living mainly in Slavic countries. Last days live in different parts of the World.

The word Kalderash derives from the word Kaldera whose meaning is tin, and as the occupation, the name as well indicates that Kalderashya were traditional blacksmiths, being professional tinsmiths.

The Kalderash Romani dialect is spoken by Kalderashi`s or as they call the Vlaho Roma and this dialect as the other Romani dialects is not only a spoken but also a written dialect.

Among the first writers who wrote on this dialect was Mateo Maksimov (1917- 1999). Maksimov was a priest and was the first Roma who translated the Bible (The New Testament) in Romani language. His father was a Kalderash from Russia whereas the mother belonged to Romani group called Manush – Sinti) France.

Maksimov mainly write in Romani and French language and these are some of his works:

•"Angels of Destiny" (1999); "People of Roads" (1995); "Roads without Caravans" (1993); "This world that isn't mine" (1992); "Say that with tears" (1990); "Vinguerka" (1987); "The Doll of Mameliga" (1986) "Condemned for Surviving" (1984); "The Seventh Daughter" (1979); "Savina" (1957); "The price of Freedom" (1955); "The Ursitory" (1946)

I have met this good man in Poland at the International Festival (1998) and, at that time he copied some of my works and there I saw how keen are Roma to get and read the works done for Roma by Roma. In the meeting in Poland, Maksimov said that “Roma do not want to standardize their language, because they confront with one another and everyone wants his voice to be heard”. These words sounded harsh to me as I was very eager to standardize the language and be equal with the rest of the population, but today I remember his words and I see that he was speaking the reality.

When speaking about Kalderashi dialect, then we may not proceed further without mentioning Mr. Leksa Manush (1942-1997) a Pedagogue from Russia, who could speak many languages and has written in Romani language. Leksa Manush has also written the Romani ABC book and his greatest desire was Roma to study their language. At the International Roma Festival in Poland (1998) I met his wife Nadezda, who told me about his work in teaching and writing. Then she told me about his ABC book, Romani Grammar and the dictionary which were still left unprinted...

In Kalderash dialect the most professional works were written by Romald Lee, who currently lives in Hamilton - Canada. This Kalderash Roma wrote many books out of which the most famous are:

• Goddam Gypsy in English, 1971.Tundra Books, Canada;The Living Fire - E Zhivindi Yag in English, 2009.Magoria Books, Canada As Author

• Gypsy Law: Romani Legal Traditions and Culture (by Walter Otto Weyrauch) in English, 2001.

University of California Press, United States As Contributing Author

•Learn Romani: Das-dúma Rromanes in English, 2005.University Of Hertfordshire Press, United States. As Author

• “Gypsies” in European Literature and Culture in English, 2008.Palgrave Macmillian, United States, As Contributing Author

*Romani Dictionary: Kalderash - English in English & Romani, 2010.

 

In Kalderash dialect Katarina Taikon has written as well (Almby,Örebro, 29/07/1932 – Ytterhogdal, Härjedalen,30/12/1995), from Sweden. Katarina wrote books for children that are known as in Sweden as well as abroad. Her most famous work is “Katitzi”. In Sweden, Hans Kalderash, is also one of those who writes in Kalderashi dialect, with whom I met in Stockholm at the opening of Romani Culture Center...

 

LOVARI DIALECT – ROMANI SPEAKING

 

Lovari are Roma who can mainly be found in Hugary, Austria and in former Yugoslavia-Croatia. Lovari live in many different countries and we may say that in every country where Roma live, we may find Lovari. The Lovari traditionally were dealing with horse selling, but in today`s days they sell engine vehicles.

We do not know the origin of the word Lovari but it is thought that these Roma have money but I personally think that this word must be investigated and I believe that older life of Roma will be revealed.

Lovari speak the Lovari dialect and this speaking falls under the group of Vlaho Roma and Lovari and Kalderashi that fall under one group understand each-other the best.

For the first time I met the Lovari in Copenhagen, in a Romani club, who came from Croatia. All these Roma speak Romani and preserve their traditions.

As other dialects, the Lovari dialect as well today is not only a spoken dialect but there are many Roma ho wrote on this dialect.

Ceiya Stoyka is one of those to write in Lovari Romani speaking. Ceiya Stoyka baptized as Margaretha Stoyka (1933-2013), is one of the first Romani women to write about the Romani Holocaust and even has written and printed poetries.

Stoyka was raised in Lovari, (traditional horse selling), Romani family that as deported to Auschwitz- Birkenau camp, and from there to other camps. After she was released from Bergen- Belsen camp she decided to become a writer and that is when she wrote her first book on Holocaust.

She is very important writer as she was the only Romani women writer who has experienced the sorrow in German camps, wrote about the genocide-the truth about the German camps.

There are many other Roma that wrote in Lovari dialect that were even translated in other languages. The biggest work was done by the Roma Center in Vienna that issues even a monthly based magazine in Romani and German language. This center through different projects and activities has printed many books of Romani fairytales told by Lovari Roma, some of them are: “Tusa ando akhoren khelos...”, written by Petra Cech/Christiane Fennesz-Juhasz/Dieter W.Halwachs / Mozes F. Heinschink ( Hg.), “Te na dikhas sunende”, written by above authors etc.

 

KALO DIALECT – ROMANI SPEAKING

 

Kalo dialect is a Romani speaking that has certain characteristics which are the main reason why Roma do not understand one another. This specific is about the local melody of the language, and these Roma speak with the same melody or better say, the speaking is protracted as many vowels are pronounced longer.

Kalo dialect is spoken by Roma from Finland and Spain. These Roma call themselves as Kalo Roma. As other dialects, Kalo dialect as well, is a written Romani dialect and the same dialect in Finland is taught at schools.

In the same dialect were written books for learning the Romani language-Kalo dialect and one of the writers is Miranda Voulasranta and Valfrid Åkerlund who write the book called “Romani Tśimbako Drom”. At the same time Henry Hedman wrote the book “Sar me sikjava Romanes” etc. as well as the dictionary “Finish – Romani” and “Romani –Finish- English dictionary” books written by Velyo Koivisto.

These dialects or Romani speaking, are the most frequently used in the World, and the other dialects that we hear to be spoken by Roma belong to one of these dialects therefore we will not discuss the other speaking varieties that are similar to local languages as for us is important to consider these main dialects in order to standardize our language. Therefore, we will firstly see what the most suitable way to standardize our language is.

In order to find it, now we will see a short example of a written text in different dialects that was asked to be translated by Romani journalists working in the Public Swedish Radio. Buy this we want to show how similar or now different are the Romani dialects between them. The below written text will be shown by the alphabet as used by them. In this writing we may not see a Gurbet speaking but we will take only a small part of Ali Krasniqi`s book, a brief biography, for showing the written version of this speaking.

 

Kalderašicko

Romani

Le romengi šib bušolpe butivar e romani šib (´romengi šib´). Ando Šwedo phenelpe vi romani, romanés ai romska (ai paša kaver šiba sar engelska, tyska, svenska ai vi mai kavér šiba).Ame kate mai dur site ramosaras ande skurto vorba romani. Romani si jekh šib kai nai la nationo/them. Ai ande sa le thema kai del o manuš duma kadia šib si jekh šib kai bušolpe minoritongi šib. Džandolpe de katar o berš 1500 sas rom ando šwedo ai denas duma romanés, ai adjes si e romani šib jekh anda le šwedoske panž oficialno minoritongi šib ai kai den duma ca 40.000 djene rom šwedoske.Romani šib ando šwedo si anda mai but variteturia sar: kale, lovari, gurbeti, resanderomani, arli, rumongri, ai kalderaš ai inke mai si. Kadala difirenti variteturia šjaj te ačarel o manuš vi mai but ai vi mai xantsi.

 

The language of Roma is ofter referred as Romani language. In Sweden it is also referred as romanes or romska (the same as the other languages like English, Turkish, Swedish and many other languages). We will here refer to it shortly as Romani language. Romani is a language having no nation. IN al countries where this language is spoken, it is recognized as a minority language. Since the 1500 there was a Roma in Sweden who spoke in Romani, and today Romani is one of the Sweden`s five official minority languages. It is assumed that there are 40 000 Swedish citizens speaking this language. The Romani language has different varieties in Sweden such as: kale, lovari, gurbeti, resande romani, arli, romanian, and kalderaš and many other. Some dialects have more similarities whereas some less.

 

Lovaricka

Romani

 

Romengi šib bušol oficialno ande buča romani chib šib. Ando Švedo phenel pe vi romani, romanes thaj romska ( paša kaver šiba sar englezicka, njamciska, švedicka taj kavera šiba. Ame inkrasam khate e vorba romani.

Romani si jek šib bi naciako. Ande sa thema so vorbipe kadi šib si kodi atunči jek minoritako šib. Katar e 1500- berš sas rom ando Švedo so trajinas thaj vorbinas romani, thaj adjes si jek anda Švedoske pandž officialnie minoritonge šiba. Phenel pe ke si 40 000 švedura so inkren kadi šib varisar. Romani si ande but fali so birij pe te hačarelpe maj but vaj maj cera. Vi ando Švedo si but fali sar: kalo, kaldarašicka, lovaricka, arlisko, romungri, resanderomani thaj kaver.

 

Kálo

Romani

 

Romengo tšib akhares aro ofiseĺo tšetaniba butvares pe romani chib. Aro sveit́iko ávela nína anáve romani, romanes,ta romska ( vertavaa vaure tšib sar angliko,kakjako,sveit́iko ta vaure ). Amen dzúsavá dai skurto( stötformi) romani. Romani hin jek tšib bi iego natio. Aro sáre them kaj douva raḱilas hin douva jek minoritetotšib.Kut́ides pálal 1500-bereh hin romen dživde aro sveit́ikothem ta raḱade romani,ta akadíves hin douva jek anda sveit́ibosko panghto ofiseĺo minoritetotšib.Douva raḱilas pasa 40 000 sveit́ika aro variso formi. Romani botnuvel anda but vaure tšibjakovauriba so hin saḱarigjako hajuviba aro bút vauriba pariba. Nína aro Sveit́iko raḱilas bút vaure varité: kalé, kaldaras, lovari,arli romungri, resanderomani ta vaure.

Arlikane/arlisko

Romani

Oficialikane e romengere čhibjakoro anav tano romani čhib. Avri kotar akava anav ki Švedia istemalkeren pe hem akala anava: romani, romanes hem romska. I romani čhib tani jek čhib bizo phuv. Ko sa o phuvja kori so vakerela pe akaja čhib oj tani minoritetikani čhib. Ki Švedia bešena roma panda kotar o 15-to šelberipe, akana i romani čhib tani jek kotar o pandž oficijalikane minoritetikane čhibja. Ki Švedia vakerena komaj 40 000 manuša i romani čhib. Ki romani čhib isi but dialektia hem telodialektia, disave dialektia šaj haljovena pes jek javerea a disavenge odova tano hari phareder. Ki Švedia vakerena pe pherdo romane dialektia ko misal (primer): gurbetikane, kaldarašikane, lovarikane, arlikane, kalikane.

 

Resande Romani

Romani-manuschet rakkrepa karas gla romani chib (romanoas rakkrepa). An Svediske-themm ashar butt ninna nav pre vorsnos rakkrepa tjakke romani, romanes ta romska (jfr andra språkbenämningar som engelska, tyska, svenska m.fl.). Vorsnos pennar mostalo helko tjiro romani gla vorsnos rakkrepa. Romani honkar jekh rakkrepa tjakke nani kammar jekh themm. An sas themmar tjakke dolle rakkras jekh tikknomanusch-tjibb. Senslo1500-berschet kammar romanoa boddrat an Svedo-themm ta rakkrat romani, ta an dives honkar dolle jekh avri dolle pranch baroa tikknomanusch-tjibb ta rakkras avri ca 40.000 manusch.

Gurbet Romani

O ALIJA KRASNIĆI, bijandilo ano 1952. berš ano gav Crkvena Vodica, nadur katar o Obilić. Hramosarol poezija thaj proza čhavorrendje thaj barendje, a čidutno si vi e Rromane Mothojmasko. Kupatisarol ane but ljila. Prezentirime si ane čidutna thaj antologije.O Alija si ljipeutno bute manifestacijengo: Arakhadimate e amaljenne e bućarnendje e Srbijaće, (andar e forore e Srbijaće), Dikhljardipe e kulturaće resimatengo e Rromengo e Srbijako, diljarenne arakhajmate ,,Lazar Vučković., ,,Jugoslavijaće arakhajmate ,,Abrašević., diljarendje arakhajmate ,,Vukovi lastari. , Loznica, Arakhajmate e bućarnendje niljara e Jugoslavijaće ane Kos.Mitrovica…

Ali Krasnići, was born in 1952 in a village called Crkvena Vodica, not far from the Obiliq municipality. He is a poetry and prose writer for children and elderly people, and is a senior Romani historian. He is collecting many papers which were presented in many museums and anthologies. Ali has participated in many activities: Serbian writers meeting (cities of Serbia), Meeting cultural achievements of Serbian Roma, writers meeting “Lazar Vuckovic”, Yugoslavian meeting “Abrasevic”, writers meeting “Vukovi Lastari”, Loznica, Yugoslavian writers meeting at Kosovo Mitrovica etc.

 

Everything we see from the above writing, we may say that every speaking group uses different alphabet and we can clearly see that these alphabets are the alphabets used by the countries from where these Roma derive. As we all know the Romani journalists that are working at the Public Radio of Sweden, they all come from former Yugoslavian countries (Kale and Resanda) and therefore all Roma from former Yugoslavia are continuously working to standardize the language.

When speaking about understanding, then we may say the above written dialects may be understood more or less, at writing, only some words differ, but when speaking the Romani language, then we may see a bigger misunderstanding because the Romani speaking is adapted to the accent of the place where those Roma come from.

Therefore, in order to understand each other professionally, as on the Radio, TV, magazines, books we must use a common language so that all Roma around the World may understand each other.

The expression “Standardized Romani Language” is frequently used by Roma but in order to reach that level we must put away our egoism and must take examples from other nations how they standardized their language and the same to be applied by us.

More about this please read the “Standardize Romani Language”.

 

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