ROMENGO HOLOKAUST

ROMENGO HOLOKAUST

 

SATHARIPE – PRAHONDIPE – SAMUDARIPE - PORAYIMOS

 

O alav Holokaust si but diskutimo kana vakarolpe vash Romengo Holokaust. Ji adive shunyem yaver yaver alava pi Romani qhib thay odoleske dikhav dromesko te dudlarav akava alav. Amen may anglal ka muthava e alavesko janipe thay edeya var akale alavesko vastinipe – nakhavipe pi Romani qhib vash te ovol amenge yekh po konkretuno janipe thay vakaripa vash akava alav.

O alav Holokaust avela kotar Grkikani qhib “Olokaustos” Satharipe. Akava alav si kerdo kotar duy alavengo himinipe, kotar “olo” sa thay “kaustos” tharipe dela satharipe ( prahonipa-prahokeripa) thay akava alav vastisalo ko purane Grkya thay Rimlyanya vash satharipe e yagaha yekh kurbani vash o Devel vay vash deyekh mulesko ruhi. Kana hraminyem phrahokeripe odova muthavela so akava kurbani thablola sa, ji ovela phraho. Akaya tradisiya therde vi o purane Izrahilya –Yahudiye - Bibolde ano kurbanideyipe tharindoy sa o brako e yagaha, kova ani Hebreyengi qhib akharyola “Olam kalil”.

Sar so dikhena ano telyaripe amen denyem sa o anava kolen amare Roma adive vastinena kana vakaryola vash Holokaust numay me gandinav so amen vi ko nakhipe shay te hramina o alav Holocaust kova si orginal anav kova vastisalo upral Roma, Yahudiye thay yavera, numay te manglem te vastina Romano alav edeya var may adekvatuno alav si Satharipe.

Kana dikha e Nacistikana Germaniyaki ideya, kola mangle te shusharen e Germaniya thay o rashtre kote thagarinde, e Yevreyenda, Romenda, Slavyenda sar thay e yaverenenda kola sine mamuy olenge vay odola kolen gandinde so nani shushe rateske, mashkar olende vi o Komunistya, Homoseksuvalya, Yehovake Tasvidya - svedoci, godyata nasvale manusha-deline, langavde…), edeya var shay te vakaryol vi Samudaripe. O Yahudiye ani Hebreyengi qhib vash Holokaus akharena Shoah (HaShoah) kolako janipe si katastrofa.

O alav Porayimos, kova si but shundo ko Roma, kana vakarolpe vash Holokaust, denya o romologi o Dr.Yan Hankok, numay, akava alav namutavela odova so si Holokaust. O alav Porayimos-poravimos kova vakaryola ko Vlahune Roma, ano yaver diyalektya vakarlape poravipe, thay o alav poravipe muthavla diso so putaryola, sar misal o Roma phenena: So porave te yakha? Akale vakaripasta halyova so o poravipe si diso so putaryola a na so tharyola.

O alav poravipe vakaryola kana o yakha putaryona pobut odolesta so si normaluno a odova si kana dikha diso so nasiyem sikhle te dikha, shukar vay nashukar, thay baryola e dikhipasko mangipe.

Si Romano alav kova vakaryola parunipa, thay akava alav liparyola vash kana paruna yekhe mule thay te gandisalo agyahar edeya var akate shay te vakaryol Romengo parunipa, odova muthavla vash Romengo mularipa thay parunipa. Akava vakaripa si pashe e alaveya samudaripa, soske sa odola so mudaryona parunyona. Numay, amen jana kotar Romani qhib, so o alav samudaripa nani reyaluno alav odoleske so akava alav na vakaryola vash manusha-jene pi Romani qhib diket vash jivutne, sar misal, yekh guruv mudaryola jik yekh manush mularyola ( mudalo guruv- mulo manush). Si gandipya so akava alav parunipe kova liparyola adive ko Roma, avela kotar alav prahonipe thay ani Indiya ( Hindusya, Sikya, Budistya, Jayinya…) o manusha kana merna ol tharena olen thay olengo praho parunyola-garavyola ani limori. Te sine agyahar, edeya var o alav Holokaust shay te akharolpe Prahonipe, agyahar sar denyem po upre ko tharipe, numay kana vakara Holokaust edeya var gandina so o Roma, o Yevreya vay o yavera kola sine Nacistikana Germaniyake viktime, mulardile thay thabile thay odoleske o alav Satharipe si odova vakaripe kova si may reyaluno vash alav Holokaust.

Romengo Holokaust si may pharo kotar sa odova so kerdilo e Romenge ani olengi migraciya. Ol na kamlile ano niyekh than kote khuvde. Ano thana kote khuvde, disave mulardile jik odola yaver paldisale numay e Nacistikani Germaniya ko qekat e Adolf Hitlereya, mangla sa te kosol e Romen sar naciya, vakarindoy so si melale rateski naciya agyar sar si vi o Yevreya.

O Roma na sine shukar ajukarde vi anglo Hitleresko thagaripe agyahar sar mothavyem ano kotor Romengo Eksodus. Ko bersh 1899 kotar Germaniyaki Policiya sine yekh ulavdo reparti kova lelaype numay kontrolipaya e Romen. Bersh po bersha e Romengo jivdipe ani Germaniya ovlay po phare thay kotar o bersh 1920 ji ko bersh 1930 o nacizmi mamuy o Roma kerya olengo jivdipe po phare. Numay o Roma vi te sine mejbur te theren pa paste spesiyalune identifikipaske kartice, ol popale shukar integrisale ano Germaniyako amalipe thay yekhethane e Germanyensa khuvde ani 1. Sumnaleski mareba. Asavko integripe kerya so but Roma prandisale e Germanyensa thay olengo rat himisalo mashkar Germanya. Sa akava shukar integripa na pumushkarya te na oven paldime thay mularde kana alo o Hitler ano thagaripe.

Akate si shukar te liparyol so o Rashaya ani Germaniya thay yaver thanende, kola therde bari rola ano thagaripe, vakarenay so o Yahudiye, kola mularde e Hz. Isa, si doshale thay armandune kotar o Devel thay ol manglape sa te koslon kotar akava Sumnal. Numay, te na bistaryol so vi o Roma sine na shukar ajukarde odoleske so o Roma, sar gandinyol, kerde o karfina kolensa mulardilo o Hz. Isa thay odoleske vi e Romen mangle te kosen akale Sumnalesta sar jene kola si armandune e Devlesta.

Sa akava so gandinde o Rashaya thay o Antisemitizmo ani Germaniya, o Hitler mangla te kerol reyaliteti. Agyahar kotar o bersh 1933 kana o Hitler alo ano thagaripe, vash Roma thay o Yevreya o pharo jivdipe irasalo ano meripe.

O Hitler gandinlay so, o Germanya kola perna ani Ariyengi rasa, si may shushi rasa thay ol manglape te thagarinen ano Sumnal jik o Yahudiye thay o Roma perena ani may teluni-melali rasa thay odoleske ol manglape te nashalyon akale Sumnalesta thay odoleske mangla te shusharol e Germaniya akale ”melale” nasiyenda.

Vash te kerolpe akava shusharipe may anglal anena yekh kanuni ko bersh 1935 e anaveya ”Nunbergesko Kanuni” kote may anglal lelola e Yahudiyengo napal vi e Romengo rashtranipe (drzavljanstvo) thay akale naciyen lelile te keden ano koncentraciyonalune logorya. Agyahar 1936. bersheste e Sinte Romen lele te phanden ani Dachau Koncentrasionesko logori sar Germaniyake ”asocialune” manusha thay ano olenge gada thovde o hram ”Z” sar zigeuner. Akale logoresta yaver e Romen biqhalde vi ano yaver logorya sar Eleru, Oberlik, Venhauzen ty. Sar o Roma ani Germaniya tretirisale sar melale rateske manusha, jene kola na mangena te keren buti - parazitya, kriminalya, kerdilo plani vash te shusharyol e Germaniya e Romenda vash te na melalkeren vay nasvalkeren e Germanyen. Agyahar 21. Septembri 1939 bershete adikardilo angluno thay 30. Januari 1940. bersheste duyto kedipe kote o Hajdrih pere godideyutnenca anena pratsav te keden mashkar yavera vi sa e Romen ani Germaniya thay te biqhalen-deportinen ani Polska thay vash akalesko reyalizipe putardilo ko Berlin nevo spesiyaluno biro e anaveya Sekciya IV D4 kolako sherutno sine o Eichman.

O Roma may anglal kedisale ano Germaniyake trin bare diza sar so si Hamburg, Köln, Stuttgart ty. O gindo kotar 30,000 milye Roma-Sintya kotar odola bare diza dromisale ani Polska ko logorya Belzec, Krychkov ty.

Sar o Roma jivdinde vi anglo Hitleresko avipe ano thagaripe ani Germaniya, o Roma sine himisale, kotar rat, e Germanyensa odoleske ko nilay 1941. bersheste o Dr. Robert Ritter thay i Sociologa i Eva Justin kotar Instituti ano Berlin, kola therde pashe sa e Romenge anava kedimi ani bari-kali kartoteka, sine anavkerdime vash te keren seleksiya ko Roma. Agyahar ol e Romen ulavde ano disave kategoriye:

•Odola kola sine qaqune- shushe Roma sine ani kategoriya Z

•Odola kola sine kvash Roma kvash gaje sine ani kategoriya ZM

•Odola kola sine kvashesta po but Roma sine ani kategoriya ZM+

•Odola kola sine kvashesta po hari Roma vay sine kvashesta po but gaje sine ani kategoriya Z-

•Odola kola na sine Roma, sine gaje, sine ani kategoriya NZ

Pali akaya kategorizaciya ko 16. Decemri 1942 bersheste o Himmler Heinrich, anela pratsav thay biqhalela lil vash te biqhalyon sa e Germaniyake Roma ano logori Auschwitz- Birkenau thay othe te mularyon.

Sar phendilo ano Auschwitz ka biqhalyon numay o qaqune Roma kotar kategorizipe jik o yavera ka aqhon ani Germaniyake phuva. Numay vi te vakardilo agyahar, ano meripasko logori Auschwitz biqhaldile vi odola Roma kola namanglape sine te biqhalyon.

Ano Auschwitz – Birkenau vay numay Auschwitz II andile o Roma thay o Yevreya e trenensa-vozenca thay kotar avipe yekhatar ulavyonay ano duy grupe: Odola kola ka mulayon yekhata thay odola kay ka hraminyon sar logorashya. Ani angluni grupa sine kotar 75% jene kola yekhata biqhaldile ani gaseki komora. Ani akaya grupa pernay o juvla, o qhave, o phure thay o nasvale manusha jik o yaver 25% sine odola kola dikhyonay po zorale kotar doktoryengi inspekciya. Ano akava may baro meripasko logori, o kapaciteti sine te mularyon vay te thablon-kremirinyon disave milya jene ko dive. Ano akava logori mulardile vay thabile 960.000 Yevreya, 750,000 Polyakya thay 19.000 Roma.

Sar si amari tema Holokaust edeya var, kobar si janglo ano akava Auschwitz- Birkenau, ko 25 Mayi ani gaseski kamra mulardile- thabile 1000 Roma jik ko 2-3 Avgusti panda 3000 Roma.

Kobar si qaqek o gindo akale Romengo kola mulardile ano Auschwitz qaqipaha na janyola numay akava gindo si odova kova hraminyola kotar rodlarde kana hraminen vash akava logori. Vash na-arakhipe e qaqune gindengo si odoleske so e Germaniyake SS-lurde/ askerya tharde buderi lila vash te na mukhen genociteske vurme. Odova so janyolpe sar sine o jivdipe ano akava logori halyova kotar o lil kole mukhla o sheruno e Auschwitzeske logoresko o Rudolf Höss, kova krisisalo ko meripe thay umlavdilo 16.04.1947 ano logori Auschwitz-Birkenau. Akale lilesta halyova so o Auschwitz sine pherdo e Romensa. Nashukar saniteripe, pherde o bolnice e naboremensa, nasvale qhave e qhavrikane nasvalipasta Nome-muyeski gangrena, o neve biyande qhave na jivdinenay maybut e disave divenda; Ov hraminela vi so o Himmler, kana akharya ole ko Berlin, vakarya oleske so sa o Roma thay o Yevreya manglape te likvidirinyon numay disave kola si saste thay zorale vash buti na. Akava Himleresko dekreti ji ko mashkar e 1944. bersheste jande numay ov thay o sasrtlarde- doktorya…

O Roma but cidinde ano akala logorya, sar kotar phari buti agyahar kotar eksperimentipe. Sasave ekperimentya kerdile e Romensa ano akala logorya. Maybut sine odola kotar medicina thay truposko zoralipe. Yekh kotar namanushipe ano akava logori muthavya vi o Dr. Mengele kova sine interesimo e duyengenge-binakyenge. Akava ” doktori” para vrdaya korkoro ningarya e qhaven ano krematoriyumi! O Dr. Mengele sine interesimo vash heterohromiya ko qhave - yakhengi boya yekh kali yekh boldi-qiviti, kolen therde e Germaniyake Romenge qhave. Ov delay dekreti te nikalen e qhavenge yakha thay te thoven – qhiven ano gavunozi vash te ningarol ano Berlin vash te keren pigmentyengo rodlaripe…

Ka lipara panda yekh namanushipe kova kerdilo ano logorya kova muthavela so o bimanushipe ki Nacistikani Germaniya natherya samantre-granica.

O Luy Simon, kova sine Rom thay therya tetovirimo trupo, kana dikhlilo kotar o agentya, dende ole disave suvya kola shuvlarde olesko trupo thay ko Buhenvald hulavde oleski morti truposta thay oleska mortaya dekorinde e komandantesko astali!

 

 

 

 

ROVA

 

Rova amare kamlenge,

Mardutnengen, ternenge.

Dayenge, dadenge,

Amare phral, phenyenge.

Rova e baht e Romengi,

So nakamol ola niyekh them.

Rova, rova, rova,

Sakana ka rova!

O Roma mulardile vi ano yaver koncentrasione logorya thay nasine koncentrasiyon logorya so nasine o Roma. O yaver logorya mashkar yaver si akala:

Bergen – Belsen, Buchenwald, Chelmno, Dachau, Lackenbach, Lodz, Maidenek, Mauthausen, Neuengamme, Ravensbrüch, Sachenhausen, Treblinka…

Vash akaya tema thay vash akala logorya po buhle - maybut hraminde o raye Donald Kenrick thay o Grattan Pakson ani olengi pustik “Bibahtale Bersha”.

Vash te iranyova palal ki terminlogiya Holokaust, dikhlem so ano logori Auschwitz – Birkenau mulardile thay thabile o Roma. Agyahar vi ano yaver logorya ani Polska, sar Chelmno kote mulardile thay thabile kotar 5000 Roma kola sine biqhalde kotar logori Lodz, odoleske ano akala logorya ulo Holkokaust e pherdo anaveya jik ano yaver, odola kolen liparyem thay so ka lipara, kote numay mulardile, ulo genocid thay Samudaripa.

O Roma na sine mularde numay ani Germaniya, ol sine mularde ano sa rashtre kote sine tali Nacistikani Germaniya (Evropa-Balkan). Disave akala rashtenda biqhalde e Romen- deportinde ani Germaniya- Polska jik disave korkore ano pere rashtre kerde o Samudaripe.

Si but logorya kola korkore kerde o samudaripe numay amen ka aqhova numay ko yekh logori kova si but pinjardo odoleya kova sine maybaro koncentraciono logori kova kedlay qhave kotar maytikne ji ko 14 bersh. Akava logori si o logor Yasenovac ani Hrvatska. O logori Yasenovac si pinjardo odoleya so ano akava logori ule may phare thay maymelale mularipya. Ano akava logori kova therya panda panj talologorya, kedisale thay mulardile o Srbya, o Roma, o Yahudiye sar rasa numay kedisale thay mulardile vi o sa yaver kola sine mamuy Ustashya, kola therde o thagaripe ani Biumlavdi Hvatskaki Rashtra (NDH), sar Komunistya, Antifashistya ty.

Ano akava logori thay ano thana kote sine Ustashya o mularipe ovlay qhuryaha, tovereya, kashtune sivrenca-maleya, cidakarde ji ko meripe thay mukhle bokhale thay trushale ji ko meripe. Asavke mulen, disaven uqharenay ani har jik disaven qhudenay ani len Sava.

O deportipe e Romengo kova manglaype te ovel vash ki Germaniya, but var na nikyolay kotar Rashtra avri numay pheryonay o vagonya kola sine vash jivutne – janvarya e Romenca thay divensa na putaryonay ji o Roma mernay bokhata. Asavki metoda o Germanya maybut kernay e qhavenge soske ol po sig mernay.

Vash te nashen o Roma akale genocidesta but var astaryonay thay nay nikyonay ani Italiya. Shunyolay so o Ustashya but cidlarena thay qhinena ano kotora sar e baren agyahar vi e tiknen.

Yekh misal kotar jivdo tasvidi-svedok koya dikhla e Ustashyengo bimanushipe si o muthavipe koya muthavela e Angelina Hudoroviq. Olako muthavipe si akava:

”May anglal qhivde mara phenyaka qhaya te putarel yekh har jik olaki day a miri phen koya sine khamni ano eftato masek sine phandli ano yekh kasht. Yekh ustashi e bayoneteya-pushkaki qhuri, putarya olako vogi, nikalya e qhave vogesta thay qhudinya ani har. Napal qhudinde mara phenya thay ko agor vi e qhaya koya disavar zoreya sekskerdili napal uqharde i har tate so ol sine panda jivde.

Ano Yasenovac sine vi Krematoriyum ano kova thabile but Yevreya, Srbya, Roma mashkar kolende sine vi qhave thay odoleske vakarolpe so ko logori Yasenovac ulo vi Holokaust.

Ji adive panda na janyola kobar viktime ule ano Yasenovac numay ano janglaripe kova dendilo ko Mashkarthemutne Askeriyake Kriseske ko Nunbyerg, e viktimengo gindo si kotar 500.000 ji ko 700,000.

Sa Romengo gindo kola mulardile vay thabile ano Yasenovac, ofisiyeluno si 20.000 numay gandinelpe so akava gindo sine po baro thay nakhela ji ko 80.000 Roma.

 

 

ANO THAN MERIPASKO

 

Sarenende yekh po yekh avri nikalde,

Disaven lokipaya, disaven maribaya.

O shere qhinyonay o yakha nikyonay,

Olengo avazi ji po Qeri shunyolay.

 

Baro rafali sarenend pi hiv araya,

Jivde vash te na aqhon ini e qhurya posavya.

Angali pi angali e phuv olen uqharya,

Pe yakha biphandle, jivdipe bijande.

 

Palo hari vakti, tali phuv yekh avazi shundilo,

Yekh tikno qhavo e mula data biyandilo.

I ratvali phuv putarde e qhave nikalde

Kotora, kotora o masa pordi day lugyarde.

 

Nay te mothavav vekye mo vilo izdrolma,

Muken´ma hari te rovav, mo vogi te quqarav.

Te manglen ini (vi) tumen roven manca,

Amenda yaver khonik naka rovol olen.

Akava Holokaust thay Samudaripa kova ulo e Romensa thay eYevreyensa ulo ano periodi kana sine duyti Sumnaleski mareba ( 1939-1945) thay o gindo e Romengo kola mulardile ano koncentrasione logorya ofisiyaluno denyola kotar 500.000 numay sar o Roma mulardile vi bi registrime thay kana janyol so o lila ano Koncentrasionalune logorya thabile, akava gindo si but po baro. Si gandipya kola nakhena ji ko 3.500.000 Roma kola mulardile ano Samudaripe thay Holokaust.

 

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